Virtual Currency and Cryptocurrency References

by John BandlerA brief history of virtual currency by John Bandler

These virtual currency references are a compilation of various links and references I have compiled over the years.

I refer to when speaking on virtual currency, cryptocurrency, virtual assets, and cybercrime money laundering. It is also a starting point for students researching these issues.

(I used to include most of these in my main article on virtual currency, but separated them because it was getting unwieldy and long.)

My articles and books

Some laws and regulations

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) (the U.S., our financial intelligence organization and AML regulatory organization)

Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)

Financial Action Task Force (FATF) (an international organization devoted to fighting financial crime and money laundering)

United States Department of Justice (DOJ)

NYS Department of Financial Services (NYS DFS) (New York's financial regulator)

NYS Department of Financial Services Rule 200 on Virtual Currencies, 23 NYCRR 200, Virtual Currencies, and related webpages.

On 6/24/2020 there was some interesting news about partnership with the State University of New York (SUNY) and potential conditional licensing, so I have updated the links below.

New York State Attorney General (NYS AG or NYAG) (providing consumer and investor protection within NYS)

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Commodities and Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

  • The CFTC regulates commodities and currency trading, they offer guidance on virtual currencies, and assert jurisdiction over them as commodities subject to the Commodity Exchange Act:

Internal Revenue Service (IRS)

U.S. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)

U.S. Executive orders


YouTube videos on money laundering (fun watching)

Fun YouTube videos, excerpted from some really good TV. Watch the clip, then you may decide to watch more. Consider how the typologies for virtual currency and cybercrime money laundering will differ from cash money laundering depicted in these videos.

  • The Wire, Baltimore detectives follow the money trail to see who is really profiting from street drug dealing.
    • YouTube title: The Wire - Chasing the Paper Trail
    • The Wire, Season 1, Episode 9, “Game Day,” Blown Deadline Productions/HBO, 2002.
  • Breaking Bad, a criminal defense attorney (who is also a criminal) explains money laundering.
    • YouTube title: Breaking Bad, Saul explains money laundering – subtitle
    • Breaking Bad, Season 3, Episode 9, “Kafkaesque,” High Bridge Entertainment/Grand Via Productions/Sony Pictures Television, 2010.
  • Breaking Bad, money laundering wife explains to husband the difficulties laundering all their dirty cash.
    • YouTube title: Breaking Bad: The Fifth Season - How Much Is Enough?.
    • Breaking Bad, Season 5, Episode 8,  "Gliding Over All”, High Bridge/Sony Pictures.
  • Scarface, a ridiculous 80’s music video montage that shows laundering of cash criminal proceeds.
    • YouTube title: Scarface | Push It to the Limit
    • Scarface, Universal Pictures, 1983.
  • Ozark Official Season 1 Trailer
    • I need to mention Ozark, but should mention that I lost interest sometime after Season 1
    • YouTube title: Ozark | Official Trailer [HD] | Netflix
  • Global Witness, Undercover in New York (attorneys)

Also worth a watch or read on cryptocurrency, NFTs, etc.

Yes, all the above are critical of the recent hype on cryptocurrency and NFTs.

More references and additional reading on this site

This page was formerly hosted at my 2019 article and I moved the links to, and now to here.

This page is hosted at, copyright John Bandler, all rights reserved.

Page created 3/24/2022 to supplement my 2019 article. Updated 10/03/2023.